[Advances of Exosomes Extraction and the Mechanism in Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer]

Dan Luo, Chunlei Li, Lun Wu, Qinhua Chen
Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer 2020 August 5
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality in the world, which seriously threatens people's safety and health. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is the key part in the process of prevention and treatment of lung cancer. It can improve the survival of patients with lung cancer. Exosomes are closely related to the invasion and metastasis process of tumor, it plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. Biomarkers based on exosomes have become a powerful diagnostic tool of lung cancer. Exosomes are lipid bilayer vesicles with uniform size and diameter of 30 nm-200 nm secreted by cells. Exosomes contain different types of nucleic acids and proteins. These nucleic acids and proteins are derived from their parent cells (including parent cancer cells), which have a wide range of physiological functions, including immune regulation, intercellular communication and other physiological activities. Biomacromolecules in exosomes, such as single-stranded RNA, long noncoding RNA, microRNA, protein and lipids, which can provide valuable genetic information for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. This review described the origin, structural characteristics, extraction methods, biological characteristics of exosomes and the relationships of exosomes in the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

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