JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

FcεRI Signaling in the Modulation of Allergic Response: Role of Mast Cell-Derived Exosomes

Mario Lecce, Rosa Molfetta, Nadia Domenica Milito, Angela Santoni, Rossella Paolini
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020 July 30, 21 (15)
32751734
Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells that act as environment resident sentinels playing a crucial role in Th2-mediated immune responses, including allergic reactions. Distinguishing features of MCs are the presence of numerous cytoplasmic granules that encapsulate a wide array of preformed bio-active molecules and the constitutive expression of the high affinity receptor of IgE (FcεRI). Upon FcεRI engagement by means of IgE and multivalent antigens, aggregated receptors trigger biochemical pathways that ultimately lead to the release of granule-stored and newly synthesized pro-inflammatory mediators. Additionally, MCs are also able to release exosomes either constitutively or upon stimulation. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles of endocytic origin endowed with important immunoregulatory properties, and represent an additional way of intercellular communication. Interestingly, exosomes generated upon FcεRI engagement contain co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, lipid mediators, and MC-specific proteases, as well as receptor subunits together with IgE and antigens. These findings support the notion that FcεRI signaling plays an important role in influencing the composition and functions of exosomes derived by MCs depending on their activation status.

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