Recent Developments in Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Disease

Deepika Narayanan, Peter L Rady, Stephen K Tyring
Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society 2020 August 4, : e13434
Trichodysplasia Spinulosa (TS) is a rare proliferative skin disease that occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients, specifically organ transplant recipients. TS is characterized by uncontrolled inner root sheath cell proliferation and folliculocentric papular eruption that can progress to disfiguring leonine facies when left untreated. TS presents with distinct histological features including the presence of large eosinophilic, trichohyaline granules within hyperproliferating inner root sheath cells of the hair bulb. The discovery of the Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus (TSPyV) and recent studies highlighting the role of TSPyV tumor antigens in cell proliferation pathways have provided new insight into the mechanisms of TS development. In this review, we discuss the expansion of our understanding of TS, specifically over the past 5 years. We summarize novel cases of TS and recent developments in the mechanisms underlying TSPyV-mediated disease progression. We also evaluate advancements in diagnostic methods and treatment options. As the incidence of TS continues to rise, it is becoming critical for clinicians to understand the clinical features of TS and emerging research regarding pathogenesis and therapeutics for early treatment of this potentially disfiguring disease.

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