JOURNAL ARTICLE

Cardiorenal syndrome in thalassemia patients

Sorasak Makmettakul, Adisak Tantiworawit, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Pokpong Piriyakhuntorn, Thanawat Rattanathammethee, Sasinee Hantrakool, Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Ekarat Rattarittamrong, Lalita Norasetthada, Kanda Fanhchaksai, Pimlak Charoenkwan, Suree Lekawanvijit
BMC Nephrology 2020 August 3, 21 (1): 325
32746879

BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality, is characterized by the coexistence of cardiac abnormality and renal dysfunction. There is limited information about CRS in association thalassemia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CRS in thalassemia patients and also associated risk factors.

METHODS: Thalassemia patients who attended the out-patient clinic of a tertiary care university hospital from October 2016 to September 2017 were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study. Clinical and laboratory findings from 2 consecutive visits, 3 months apart, were assessed. The criteria for diagnosis of CRS was based on a system proposed by Ronco and McCullough. Cardiac abnormalities are assessed by clinical presentation, establishment of acute or chronic heart failure using definitions from 2016 ESC guidelines or from structural abnormalities shown in an echocardiogram. Renal dysfunction was defined as chronic kidney disease according to the 2012 KDIGO guidelines.

RESULTS: Out of 90 thalassemia patients, 25 (27.8%) had CRS. The multivariable analysis showed a significant association between CRS and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) (odds ratio (OR) 20.55, p = 0.016); thalassemia type [β0 /βE vs β0 /β0 thalassemia (OR 0.005, p = 0.002)]; pulmonary hypertension (OR 178.1, p = 0.001); elevated serum NT-proBNP (OR 1.028, p = 0.022), and elevated 24-h urine magnesium (OR 1.913, p = 0.016). There was no association found between CRS and frequency of blood transfusion, serum ferritin, liver iron concentration, cardiac T2*, type of iron chelating agents, or urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level.

CONCLUSIONS: CRS is relatively common in thalassemia patients. Its occurrence is associated with laboratory parameters which are easily measured in clinical practice.

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