An Overview of Attachment Patterns: Psychology, Neurobiology, and Clinical Implications

Sadiq Naveed, Sundas Saboor, Muhammad Zeshan
Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 2020 August 1, 58 (8): 18-22
Attachment is an emotional bond that connects children to their caregivers. The psychology of attachment suggests that children with a stronger relationship with their primary caregivers are considered secure in their attachment patterns, whereas children with a strained relationship with their early caregivers and who had felt rejected in their childhood are considered insecure. The quality of the nurturing environment in the early stages of life of children and the relationship of parents themselves (e.g., divorce, conflict) contribute significantly to shaping a child's attachment behaviors. The neurobiology of attachment patterns includes the (a) hypothalamus, which mediates stress hormones; (b) amygdala, which controls stronger emotions such as fear; and (c) prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for emotional regulation. These areas of the brain play a vital role in children's socioemotional development. The current article reviews four attachment patterns: insecure avoidant (type A), secure (type B), insecure ambivalent/resistant (type C), and disorganized (an extreme form of insecure attachment), and explores the implications of attachment patterns on the mental health of children. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 58(8), 18-22.].

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