SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment and the risk of bullous pemphigoid and skin-related adverse events: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

AIMS: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of developing bullous pemphigoid (BP) and other skin-related adverse events (AEs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) undergoing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) treatment in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

METHODS: In this meta-analysis, the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for RCTs, which involve patients with T2DM reporting skin-related AEs. RCTs that comparatively evaluated the effects of DPP-4i treatment and placebo on patients with T2DM and reported skin-related AEs were included in the analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the Peto's methods. The GRADE approach was used to rate the quality of evidence.

RESULTS: A total of 46 randomized placebo-controlled trials, including 3 trials with reports of BP (n = 38 011), that reported skin-related AEs were included (n = 59 332). Compared to the placebo group, the risk of developing BP was significantly higher in the DPP-4i treatment group (OR = 7.38, 95% CI 2.00-27.25, I2 = 0%, P = .003; quality rating: very low). Additionally, DPP-4i treatment was associated with an increased overall risk of developing skin-related AEs (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46, I2 = 32%, P = .03; quality rating: moderate).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that treatment with DPP-4is, including sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin, was associated with an increased risk of developing BP. Additionally, the risk of developing skin-related AEs increased when all DPP-4is were combined. Skin lesion, especially BP, should be monitored in patients with diabetes undergoing DPP-4i treatment. Future studies should evaluate the susceptible population and develop strategies for early detection of skin-related AEs.

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