Ion Channel Profiling in Prostate Cancer: Toward Cell Population-Specific Screening

Valerio Farfariello, Natalia Prevarskaya, Dimitra Gkika
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 2020 August 1
In the last three decades, a growing number of studies have implicated ion channels in all essential processes of prostate carcinogenesis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. The changes in the expression of individual ion channels show a specific profile, making these proteins promising clinical biomarkers that may enable better molecular subtyping of the disease and lead to more rapid and accurate clinical decision-making. Expression profiles and channel function are mainly based on the tumoral tissue itself, in this case, the epithelial cancer cell population. To date, little data on the ion channel profile of the cancerous prostate stroma are available, even though tumor interactions with the microenvironment are crucial in carcinogenesis and each distinct population plays a specific role in tumor progression. In this review, we describe ion channel expression profiles specific for the distinct cell population of the tumor microenvironment (stromal, endothelial, neuronal, and neuroendocrine cell populations) and the technical approaches used for efficient separation and screening of these cell populations.

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