Hypotension on admission in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury: contemporary examination of the incidence and outcomes using a national registry

Alexander Becker, Yehuda Hershkovitz, Kobi Peleg, Joseph Dubose, Givon Adi, Zahalka Aala, Boris Kessel
Brain Injury 2020 July 31, : 1-5

PURPOSE: This study was primarily aimed at establishing the incidence and impact of hypotension in patients with blunt traumatic brain injury based on National Trauma Registry Database.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the National Trauma Registry was conducted. Patients with TBI following blunt mechanisms of injury were examined, comparing those with and without hypotension (SBP < 90 mm Hg) on arrival.

RESULTS: During the period from 1998 to 2017, the registry included 437.354 blunt trauma patients. Of them, 7818 patients were hemodynamically unstable (SBP < 90 mm Hg) on admission. 513 met the inclusion criteria. Significant percentages of patients with high grade injures (ISS≥16) and low admission's GCS 3-12 (46% vs 16.4%), were found in the group of hypotensive TBI patients (p<0.0001). 323 (62.9%) patients had head AIS score 3-4 and only 190 (37.1%) patients AIS 5-6 (p<0.0001). Mortality in the hypotensive TBI group was 32.3%, whereas 6.1% patients died in the TBI hemodynamically stable group (p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: TBI patients presenting with hypotension represent an appreciable portion blunt trauma patients. Prompt brain CT, expedient efforts at optimal resuscitation and possibly early inotropic and vasopressors agents use may have an impact on final outcome in these patients.

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