Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Sport-Related Concussion in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review.

Background: Female athletes are more susceptible to sport-related concussions (SRCs) and experience worse outcomes compared with male athletes. Although numerous studies on SRC have compared the outcomes of concussions in male and female athletes after injury, research pertaining to why female athletes have worse outcomes is limited.

Purpose: To determine the factors that predispose female athletes to more severe concussions than their male counterparts.

Study Design: Systematic review; Level or evidence, 3.

Methods: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched on July 5 to July 20, 2018. Included were cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that examined the effects of concussive and subconcussive head impacts in only female athletes of all ages, regardless of competition level. These studies were further supplemented with epidemiologic studies. Exclusion criteria included narrative reviews, single case reports, abstracts and letters to the editor, and studies related to chronic traumatic brain injury.

Results: A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Female athletes appear to sustain more severe concussions than male athletes, due in part to a lower biomechanical threshold tolerance for head impacts. Additionally, concussions may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, resulting in worse symptoms and amenorrhea. Although females are more likely to report concussions than males, underreporting still exists and may result in concussions going untreated.

Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that female athletes may be more susceptible to concussion, have prolonged symptoms after a concussion, and are more likely to report a concussion than their male counterparts. However, underreporting still exists among female athletes. Possible factors that put female athletes at a higher risk for concussions include biomechanical differences and hormonal differences. To effectively prevent, diagnose, and treat concussions in female athletes, more research is required to determine when and how such injuries are sustained. Despite sex-based differences in the clinical incidence, reporting behavior, and outcomes of SRCs, female athletes remain an understudied population, resulting in lack of sex-specific treatment guidelines for female athletes postinjury.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app