GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions

Rabia Naz, Thomas H Roberts, Asghari Bano, Asia Nosheen, Humaira Yasmin, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan, Rumana Keyani, Sami Ullah, Wajiha Khan, Zahid Anwar
PloS One 2020, 15 (7): e0236319
Jacaranda mimosifolia trees are grown in frost-free regions globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methanol crude extract and various fractions of increasing polarity of J. mimosifolia leaves for bioactive metabolites, as well as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The anti-inflammatory potential of the various fractions of J. mimosifolia leaf extract was studied via the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay. Methanol crude extract (ME), derived fractions extracted with chloroform (CF) and ethyl acetate (EAF), and residual aqueous extract (AE) of dried J. mimosifolia leaves were assayed for polyphenolic compounds, their antioxidant, antimicrobial and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities, and anticancer properties. Polyphenolic compounds were determined via HPLC while phytochemicals (total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and ortho-diphenol contents), antioxidant activities (DPPH, hydrogen peroxideperoxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical anions) and LOX were measured via spectrophotometry. Methanol extracts and various fractions were evaluated for antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antifungal potential of the fractions was tested against three species: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. The highest values for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonols, tannins and ortho-diphenols were in the ME, followed by CF > EAF > AE. ME also had the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 values 48±1.3, 45±2.4, 42±1.3 and 46±1.3 μg/mL based on the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical assays, respectively. TPC and TFC showed a significant, strong and positive correlation with the values for each of these antioxidant activities. ME exhibited anti-inflammatory potential based on its LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.3 μg/mL). ME also had the maximum antibacterial and antifungal potential, followed by EAF > CF > AE. Furthermore, ME showed the strongest cytotoxic effect (EC50 = 10.7 and 17.3 μg/mL) against human hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma (LnCaP) and human lung carcinoma (LU-1) cell lines, respectively. Bioactive compounds present in leaf methanol extracts of J. mimosifolia were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen compounds were identified including phenolic and alcoholic compounds, as well as fatty acids. Our results suggest that J. mimosifolia leaves are a good source of natural products with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for potential therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications.

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