Distant Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer Patients-Do We Have New Predicting Clinicopathological and Molecular Biomarkers? A Comprehensive Review

Stanislav Filip, Veronika Vymetalkova, Jiri Petera, Ludmila Vodickova, Ondrej Kubecek, Stanislav John, Filip Cecka, Marketa Krupova, Monika Manethova, Klara Cervena, Pavel Vodicka
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020 July 24, 21 (15)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a serious health problem worldwide. Approximately half of patients will develop distant metastasis after CRC resection, usually with very poor prognosis afterwards. Because patient performance after distant metastasis surgery remains very heterogeneous, ranging from death within 2 years to a long-term cure, there is a clinical need for a precise risk stratification of patients to aid pre- and post-operative decisions. Furthermore, around 20% of identified CRC cases are at IV stage disease, known as a metastatic CRC (mCRC). In this review, we overview possible molecular and clinicopathological biomarkers that may provide prognostic and predictive information for patients with distant metastasis. These may comprise sidedness of the tumor, molecular profile and epigenetic characteristics of the primary tumor and arising metastatic CRC, and early markers reflecting cancer cell resistance in mCRC and biomarkers identified from transcriptome. This review discusses current stage in employment of these biomarkers in clinical practice as well as summarizes current experience in identifying predictive biomarkers in mCRC treatment.

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