The differences of carotid atherosclerosis among non-OSAHS and OSAHS patients of different severities: a cross-sectional study

Zeliang Hao, Lu Qin, Junyao Tong, Na Li, Yi Zhai, Ying Zhao
Sleep & Breathing 2020 July 27

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a widely prevalent problem with many complications, such as hypertension and cerebral vascular diseases. Atherosclerosis, whose most severe outcome is ischemic stroke, is reported being affected by OSAHS. The objective of this article is to investigate the differences of carotid atherosclerosis patients with or without OSAHS by a cross-sectional research.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with carotid atherosclerosis by ultrasonography were recruited. They were requested to fill the primary screening OSAHS questionnaire. Patients with high tendency of OSAHS underwent polysomnography (PSG) tests into OSAHS group, and patients without OSAHS were into non-OSAHS group. Blood tests and medical history were collected. Carotid atherosclerosis severity was analyzed by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque, blood flow velocity, etc. Differences between the two groups and subgroups were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 242 carotid atherosclerosis patients were enrolled including 118 non-OSAHS patients (38 males and 80 females) and 124 OSAHS patients (40 mild, 32 moderate, and 52 severe). Significant differences were found in PSV-ICA and EDV-ICA on both sides (p < 0.05) but no significant differences on IMT and velocity of CCV. CA patients with OSAHS were younger than ones without OSAHS. With the severity of OSAHS increasing, the age of CA patients decreased. The more severity of OSAHS, the younger the patients were. There were no significant differences in comparing cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, and glucose.

CONCLUSION: As far as CIMT, carotid plaque, blood flow velocity, and blood lipid are concerned, the severity of CA is not affected by the severity of OSAHS accordantly. The relationship between OSAHS and CA may not be dose dependent.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered on clinical trials (No. NCT03665818).

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