Role of non-coding RNAs in the progression and resistance of cutaneous malignancies and autoimmune diseases

Abdul Q Khan, Fareed Ahmad, Syed Shadab Raza, Lubna Zarif, Kodappully S Siveen, Gulab Sher, Maha Victor Agha, Khalid Rashid, Michal Kulinski, Joerg Buddenkotte, Shahab Uddin, Martin Steinhoff
Seminars in Cancer Biology 2020 July 24
Skin, the largest organ of human body, is vital for the existence and survival of human beings. Further, developmental and physiological mechanisms associated with cutaneous biology are vital for homeostasis as their deregulations converge towards pathogenesis of a number of skin diseases, including cancer. It has now been well accepted that most of the transcribed human genome lacks protein translational potential and has been termed as non-coding RNAs (nc-RNAs), which includes circular RNA (circRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs). These nc-RNAs have gained great attention in both preclinical and clinical research as they are critical in most of the regulatory mechanisms of biological homeostasis and disease development by controlling the gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic level. In this review we have illustrated how nc-RNAs are critical in the development and maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis and functioning and also, most importantly, how the dysregulated expression and functioning of nc-RNAs play critical role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases including cancer and the autoimmune skin diseases. Considering the vital role of nc-RNAs in cancer resistance, metastasis and autoimmune diseases, we have also highlighted their role as promising prognostic and therapeutic targets for the cutaneous diseases.

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