Severe, Reversible Acute Lung Injury During Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization After Filgrastim in a Child With Neuroblastoma: A Case Report

Izabella Miśkiewicz-Migoń, Justyna Miśkiewicz-Bujna, Monika Rosa, Anna Kubica-Cielińska, Joanna Bladowska, Szymon Janczar, Marek Ussowicz
Transplantation Proceedings 2020 July 23
Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell mobilization is widely performed in a variety of clinical facilities and is believed to be a safe outpatient procedure. In this report, we describe a child with neuroblastoma who developed an extremely severe acute lung injury after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used for peripheral hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. A 3-year-old boy with a medical history of patent foramen ovale and secundum atrial septal defect was diagnosed with an MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and treated with chemotherapy. During stem cell mobilization with filgrastim, the boy was in very good clinical condition, with a peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count of 57.17 K/μL, but he suddenly deteriorated, and nausea, seizures, and nystagmus were observed. The patient developed dyspnea with hemoptysis, and lung computed tomography showed bilateral asymmetrical pulmonary opacification demonstrating an anteroposterior density gradient. Because of rapidly progressing circulatory and respiratory failure, the child was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Corticosteroid therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and cardiovascular support with mechanical ventilation were immediately instituted, and the child recovered without sequelae. The presented case emphasizes that life-threatening complications can occur during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration, and patient surveillance is warranted, especially if high leukocyte counts are observed or the patient exhibits cardiopulmonary signs.

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