JOURNAL ARTICLE

Wandering minds in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder

Talar R Moukhtarian, Iris Reinhard, Alfonso Morillas-Romero, Celine Ryckaert, Florence Mowlem, Natali Bozhilova, Paul Moran, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, Philip Asherson
European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 July 20
32703662
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) have overlapping symptoms. We proposed that excessive spontaneous mind wandering (MW-S) might reflect a component of psychopathology that distinguishes ADHD from borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a questionnaire measure of MW-S and an experience sampling method, we investigated MW-S in daily life, in 28 ADHD, 19 BPD, 22 comorbid ADHD+BPD, and 29 control females. The clinical groups reported heightened frequency and intensity of MW-S compared to controls, but no differences from each other. When controlling for depression and anxiety, significant differences only persisted between controls and ADHD, who also showed elevated intensity of MW-S compared to BPD and comorbid ADHD+BPD. We found no MW-S instability differences amongst clinical cases as well as cases versus controls. Negative content of MW-S was higher in BPD and comorbid ADHD+BPD compared to controls, with no differences between ADHD and controls. When controlling for depression/anxiety, the differences between BPD and comorbid ADHD+BPD and controls dissipated. MW-S is a trans-diagnostic process present in both ADHD and BPD. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of this experience may be driven by anxiety/depression in BPD but reflect a core process in ADHD.

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