Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Facial Pain Using Conventional Devices: Indications and Results

Christopher J Winfree
Progress in Neurological Surgery 2020 July 17, 35: 1-8
Trigeminal branch stimulation is a type of peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) used to treat a variety of craniofacial pain disorders. Common indications include trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal neuropathic pain, trigeminal deafferentation pain, trigeminal postherpetic neuralgia, supraorbital neuralgia, and migraine headaches. Supraorbital and infraorbital arrays are the most common electrode configurations, although preauricular, mandibular branch, and subcutaneous peripheral nerve field stimulation arrays have also been described. Trigeminal branch stimulation may be used as a stand-alone neuromodulation therapy or it may be combined with occipital nerve, sphenopalatine ganglion, or Gasserian ganglion stimulation to treat more complex pain patterns. Consistent with other forms of PNS, trigeminal branch stimulation is a minimally invasive, safe, and straightforward method of treating medically refractory neuropathic pain.

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