18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT in MEN1 Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Mathieu Gauthé, Anne Dierick-Gallet, Thierry Delbot, Léopoldine Bricaire, Jérôme Bertherat, Marie-Odile North, Beatrix Cochand-Priollet, Phillipe Bouchard, Jean-Noël Talbot, Lionel Groussin, Sébastien Gaujoux
World Journal of Surgery 2020 July 17

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT1) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Its surgical management is challenging. We aimed to describe and compare the imaging findings of parathyroid ultrasound (US), sestaMIBI scintigraphy (sestaMIBI), and 18 F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT in a series of MEN1 patients with HPT1.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of MEN1 patients with HPT1 assessed by parathyroid US, sestaMIBI scintigraphy and SPECT/CT, and FCH-PET/CT for potential surgery between 2015 and 2019.

RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MEN1 who presented with HPT1 and were assessed by the 3 imaging modalities were included. After imaging workups, 11 patients were operated on for the first time, 4 underwent a redo surgery, and 7 did not undergo an operation. The overall patient-based positivity rate of imaging was 91% (20 of 22) for parathyroid US and 96% (21 of 22) for both sestaMIBI and FCH-PET/CT. The 3 imaging modalities demonstrated negative findings in 1/22 patient who did not undergo surgery. Overall, 3 pathologic glands were not detected by any imaging technique. SestaMIBI and FCH-PET/CT both resulted in the same 3 false-positive results in ectopic areas with a significant uptake on two thymic carcinoid tumors and one inflammatory lymph node. FCH-PET/CT provided more surgically relevant data than sestaMIBI in 4/11 patients with initial surgery and in 1/4 patient who underwent redo surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to sestaMIBI scintigraphy, FCH-PET/CT provides additional information regarding the number of pathologic parathyroid glands and their localization in MEN1 patients with HPT1.

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