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Clinical effect of manual reduction of humeroradial joint in the treatment of type Ⅰ-Ⅲ fresh Monteggia fracture in children.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of closed reduction on the humeroradial joint in the treatment of Bado type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ fresh Monteggia fractures in children and investigate the effect of clinical factors, including Bado classification, age and time of treatment on the success rate of closed reduction.

METHODS: We retrospectively studied the data of children ≤10 years old with fresh Monteggia fractures (injury within two weeks) treated by manual reduction with plaster immobilization from January 2014 to April 2019. All patients were followed up in the outpatient department every two weeks for 4-6 weeks until plaster removal and then 3, 6 and 12 months. Online or telephone interview was provided for some inconvenient patients after 6 months. Mackay criteria were used to evaluate the clinical effect. Radiographic data were collected and reviewed to assess the reduction of the humeroradial joint. Function of the elbow joint and forearm was evaluated and risk factors related to the failure of reduction were assessed. The successful manual reduction was analyzed from three aspects, respectively Bado fracture type (Ⅰ,Ⅱ, Ⅲ), patient age (<3 year, 3-6 years, >6 years) and time interval from injury to treatment (group A, <1 day; group B, 1-3 days; group C, >3 days).

RESULTS: Altogether 88 patients were employed in this study, including 58 males (65.9%) and 30 females (34.1%) aged from 1 to 10 years. There were 29 cases (33.0%) of Bado type Ⅰ Monteggia fractures, 16 (18.2%) type Ⅱ and 43 (48.7%) type Ⅲ. Successful manual reduction was achieved in 79 children (89.8%) at the last follow-up. The failed 9 patients received open surgery. Mackay criteria showed 100% good-excellent rate for all the patients. The success rate of manual reduction was 89.7%, 87.5% and 90.7% in Bado type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ cases, respectively, revealing no significant differences among different Bado types (χ2  = 0.131, p = 0.937). Successful closed reduction was achieved in 13 toddlers (13/13, 100%), 38 preschool children (28/42, 90.5%) and 28 school-age children (28/33, 84.8%), suggesting no significant difference either (χ2  = 2.375, p = 0.305). However time interval from injury to treatment showed that patients treated within 3 days had a much higher rate of successful manual reduction: 67 cases (67/71, 94.4%) in group A, 10 cases (10/11, 90.9%) in group B, and 2 cases (2/6, 33.3%) in group C (χ2  = 22.464, p < 0.001). Fisher's test further showed significant differences between groups A and C (p = 0.001) and groups B and C (p = 0.028).

CONCLUSION: Closed reduction is a safe and effective method for treating fresh Monteggia fractures in children. The reduction should be conducted as soon as possible once the diagnosis has been made.

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