Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following inhalation of turpentine oil: A case report

Yasuhiro Umekage, Shunsuke Okumura, Toshiyuki Tenma, Yoshihiro Kazebayashi, Noriko Hirai, Yoshinori Minami, Kazushi Doshita, Takaaki Sasaki, Yasushi Yamamoto, Yoshinobu Ohsaki
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports 2020, 31: 101143
32676278
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an eosinophilic lung disease associated with environmental substances including smoking. Although the etiology of AEP has not been fully elucidated, it has been hypothesized that IL-33 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of AEP. Turpentine oil, from resins of pine trees, is not only used in paints, but also utilized in experimental animal models of inflammation because it leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-33. Here, we report the first case of AEP following turpentine oil inhalation. A 67-year-old woman reported using urushiol with turpentine oil to repair home goods. She had fever and persistent cough after turpentine inhalation over a very short period of time. The chest X-ray image showed consolidation in the upper right lung field. Laboratory findings indicated that there was no evidence of infection, collagen vascular diseases, and other allergic diseases that cause pneumonia, but analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed 29% eosinophils with a small number of lipid-laden macrophages. With these findings, the diagnostic criteria of AEP was met. We rendered a diagnosis of AEP by inhalation of turpentine because no other cause for AEP was identified even with a structured questionnaire survey. The manifestations resolved immediately after steroid therapy. This is the first report of a case of AEP caused by the inhalation of turpentine oil.

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