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Organ Transplantation in Hereditary Fibrinogen A α-Chain Amyloidosis: A Case Series of French Patients.

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Fibrinogen A α-chain amyloidosis (AFib amyloidosis) is a form of amyloidosis resulting from mutations in the fibrinogen A α-chain gene (FGA), causing progressive kidney disease leading to kidney failure. Treatment may include kidney transplantation (KT) or liver-kidney transplantation (LKT), but it is not clear what factors should guide this decision. The aim of this study was to characterize the natural history and long-term outcomes of this disease, with and without organ transplantation, among patients with AFib amyloidosis and various FGA variants.

STUDY DESIGN: Case series.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 32 patients with AFib amyloidosis diagnosed by genetic testing in France between 1983 and 2014, with a median follow-up of 93 (range, 4-192) months, were included.

RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 51.5 (range, 12-77) years. Clinical presentation consisted of proteinuria (93%), hypertension (83%), and kidney failure (68%). Manifestations of kidney disease appeared on average at age 57 (range, 36-77) years in patients with the E526V variant, at age 45 (range, 12-59) years in those with the R554L variant (P<0.001), and at age 24.5 (range, 12-31) years in those with frameshift variants (P<0.001). KT was performed in 15 patients and LKT was performed in 4. In KT patients with the E526V variant, recurrence of AFib amyloidosis in the kidney graft was less common than with a non-E526V (R554L or frameshift) variant (22% vs 83%; P=0.03) and led to graft loss less frequently (33% vs 100%). Amyloid recurrence was not observed in patients after LKT.

LIMITATIONS: Analyses were based on clinically available historical data. Small number of patients with non-E526V and frameshift variants.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests phenotypic variability in the natural history of AFib amyloidosis, depending on the FGA mutation type. KT appears to be a viable option for patients with the most common E526V variant, whereas LKT may be a preferred option for patients with frameshift variants.

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