Characterization of Immune Cells and Proinflammatory Mediators in the Pulmonary Environment

Kelly L Monaghan, Breanne Y Farris, Wen Zheng, Edwin C K Wan
Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE 2020 June 24, (160)
Immune cell expansion, activation, and trafficking to the lungs, which are controlled by the expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines, may be altered by severe brain injury. This is evidenced by the fact that pneumonia is a major cause of mortality in patients who have suffered from ischemic stroke. The goal of this protocol is to describe the use of multicolor flow cytometric analysis to identify 13 types of immune cells in the lungs of mice, including alveolar macrophages, interstitial macrophages, CD103+ or CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs), plasmacytoid DCs, eosinophils, monocytes/monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, lymphoid-derived  T and B cells, NK cells, and NKT cells, following ischemic stroke induction by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, we describe the preparation of lung homogenates using a bead homogenization method, to determine the expression levels of 13 different cytokines or chemokines simultaneously by multiplex bead arrays coupled with flow cytometric analysis. This protocol can also be used to investigate the pulmonary immune response in other disease settings, such as infectious lung disease or allergic disease.

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