[Early efficacy of islet transplantation in the treatment of adult advanced diabetes]

A B Hu, X C Ling, J L Duan, W W Liao, X F Zhu, X S He, F R Liu, F Bai
Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal] 2020 July 14, 100 (26): 2040-2043
Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of islet transplantation for patients with advanced diabetes. Methods: Five cases of islet allotransplantation were performed on 4 adult recipients. The same blood type adult brain-dead pancreas donors were selected and the islets were prepared in GMP laboratory. The prepared islet suspension was slowly injected into the liver of the recipients within 30-60 minutes. The immunosuppressive regimen was a combination of basiliximab, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil and TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody was used to reduce the post-transplant inflammatory response. Insulin was temporarily applied to control blood glucose after surgery, and the dosage of insulin was adjusted to decrease according to the blood glucose level until it was discontinued. Results: A total of 5 islet transplants were performed in 4 patients, including 1 patient who received the second islet transplantations. All operations were succeed and the blood glucose and portal pressure were stable during the operation. Exogenous insulin was continued to keep blood glucose level stable (4-12 mmol/L) after surgery. Four cases (including the one who received two islet transplantation) started to stop using insulin at the third to fourth week, and the insulin dosage of the other case was 74% lower than that before the operation, and no hypoglycemic reaction occurred in all patients after islet transplantation. The C-peptide level in 3 patients reached the normal range, and the level in one patient with type I diabetes (without insulin release) remained at 0.45-0.6 μg/L (0.15-0.2 nmol/L). In addition, one patient showed a rise in blood glucose again and continued to use insulin half a year after insulin discontinuation. Then, he was performed the second islet transplantation which showed good effect and stopped taking insulin in 10 days after surgery. There were 3 cases of liver puncture bleeding after opeation, of which 2 cases were treated with ultrasound radiofrequency ablation to stop bleeding, 1 case stopped spontaneously, and no other complications were found. Conclusions: Islet transplantation is effective in the treatment of advanced diabetes patients with small trauma and high safety, which is worthy of more promotion. Long-term efficacy and maintenance therapy still need further investigation.

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