RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
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Evaluation of an Intrapartum Insulin Regimen for Women With Diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an insulin protocol for intrapartum glucose control among parturients with diabetes was associated with improved outcomes.

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes delivering a liveborn neonate at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Before 2011, women with diabetes were given intravenous (IV) insulin or glucose during labor at the discretion of the on-call endocrinologist. In 2011, a standardized protocol was designed to titrate insulin and glucose infusions. Outcomes were compared between two time periods: January 2005-December 2010 (before implementation) and January 2012-December 2017 (after implementation) with 2011 excluded to account for a phase-in period. Maternal outcomes included intrapartum hyperglycemia (blood glucose greater than 125 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose less than 60 mg/dL). Neonatal outcomes included hypoglycemia (blood glucose less than 50 mg/dL), intensive care admission, and IV dextrose therapy. t tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and χ tests were used for bivariable analyses. Linear and logistic multivariable regression were used to account for confounding factors.

RESULTS: Of 3,689 women, 928 (25.2%) delivered before 2011. After protocol implementation, frequencies of both maternal intrapartum hyperglycemia (51.3% vs 37.9%) and hypoglycemia decreased (6.1% vs 2.5%), both P<.001; respective adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.77 and 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.78. The frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia, however, increased (36.6% vs 49.2%, P<.001; aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.45-2.07). Admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and need for IV dextrose therapy were similar across time periods.

CONCLUSION: A formal protocol to manage insulin and glucose infusions for parturients with diabetes was associated with improved intrapartum maternal glucose control, but an increased frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia.

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