[Quality of indications in cystic lesions of the pancreas]

B W Renz, M Ilmer, J G D'Haese, J Werner
Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen 2020 July 8
Cystic tumors of the pancreas (PCN) have increasingly gained importance in the clinical routine as they are frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding due to the continuous improvement in cross-sectional imaging. A differentiation is made between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts, whereby the latter has a tendency to malignant transformation to a varying extent. Therefore, they can be considered as precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer (PDAC). In addition to a detailed patient history and examination, imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) are used for the differential diagnosis. The indications for surgical resection of these lesions are based on the current European guidelines from 2018; however, the content is not evidence-based but relies on knowledge and recommendations from experts. According to these consensus recommendations asymptomatic serous cystic neoplasms (SCN) are serous lesions with a low tendency for malignant transformation and can be monitored. In contrast resection is warranted for all mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) >4 cm and all solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN). Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), which are differentiated into main duct (MD-IPMN) and branch duct type (BD-IPMN) IPMN based on the position in the pancreatic duct system, should be resected as MD-IPMN and mixed type (MT)-IPMN. The risk of malignant transformation in BD-IPMN is variable and depends on risk factors, which are defined clinically and by imaging morphology. The treatment management is therefore carried out on an individual basis following risk estimation. In order to quantify the quality of indications in PCN and thereby also contributing to optimized medical care, prospective long-term studies are urgently needed.

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