Low HbA1c With Normal Hemoglobin in a Diabetes Patient Caused by PIEZO1 Gene Variant: A Case Report

An Song, Lin Lu, Yuxiu Li, Mei Lin, Xingxing Yuan, Xinqi Cheng, Weibo Xia, Ou Wang, Xiaoping Xing
Frontiers in Endocrinology 2020, 11: 356
Background: Diabetes is a global disease with rapidly increasing prevalence in the world. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as an important indicator of diabetes could reflect the average serum glucose level over 120 days. However, when using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes, it is important to consider other factors that may impact HbA1c level including age, race/ethnicity, detection method, and co-morbidities. Here we report a case of diabetes with normal hemoglobin but reduced HbA1c. Case report: A 57-year-old female patient was diagnosed with diabetes by oral glucose tolerance test results. However, the HbA1c level was repeatedly decreased, glycated albumin level was high, with normal levels of hemoglobin and albumin, and a slightly elevated level of bilirubin. Moreover, life span of red blood cells was significantly shortened. Further examination of whole exome sequencing of the patient and her daughter showed heterozygous variant in PIEZO1 gene (c.6017T > A) in both, which is associated with dehydration hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS). After this diagnosis, we changed nateglinide to sitagliptin to reduce the burden of the pancreas islet function. Conclusion: In case of abnormally low HbA1c, we recommend that GA and reticulocyte should be measured simultaneously. Moreover, the methodology for hemoglobin measurement and the diseases that could cause abnormal quantity and quality of red blood cells and hemoglobin be considered.

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