[Clinical featuers of adult patients with post-viral-encephalitis autoimmune encephalitis]

Z Y Fu, H T Ren, L P Xue, Y N Tian, S Y Fan, Y H Zhao, N Lin, H X Yin, N Jiang, B Peng, L Y Cui, H Z Guan
Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal] 2020 July 7, 100 (25): 1933-1936
Objective: To explore the clinical features of post-viral-encephalitis autoimmune encephalitis (PVEAE). Methods: Ten cases of PVEAE, who were hospitalized in the Neurology Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between November 2014 and October 2019, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical manifestation, immunology, neuroradiology, treatment and outcomes were analyzed. Results: There were 5 males and 5 females, with a median age of 44 (18, 66) years. Of 9 cases, the median interval between the two onsets of encephalitis was 37 (24, 60) days, and there was no obvious interval in case 7. In viral encephalitis phase, the peak modified Rankin scale (mRS) was 4.5 (4.0, 5.0) and the remission mRS was 2.0 (1.0, 3.0). In autoimmune encephalitis (AE) phase, the peak mRS was 4.0 (3.0, 5.0). Symptoms of AE included mental and behavioral abnormalities (10/10), amnesia (10/10), motor disorders (5/10), autonomic dysfunction (5/10), speech disorders (4/10), seizures (2/10) and consciousness disturbance (2/10). On average, each case presented with 4 (2, 6) symptoms. In AE phase, the positive rate of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was 80% (8/10), while in serum it was only 20% (2/10). Neuroimaging showed that in AE phase, the lesions expanded in 8 cases, remained unchanged in 1 case and shrank in 1 case. In AE phase, 10 cases received first line treatments, and 2 cases accepted long-course immunotherapy. After treatment, symptoms of 9 cases were obviously relieved. The mRS for short-term and long-term outcomes was 2.0 (1.0, 4.0) and 1.0 (0, 2.0), respectively. Conclusions: PVEAE might present with either typical biphasic course or monophasic/pseudo-monophasic course. In AE phase, anti-NMDA receptor antibody turned positive in most cases. Much importance should be attached to the recognition and diagnosis of PVEAE and treat it actively thereafter.

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