Biological properties of almond proteins produced by aqueous and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processes from almond cake

Thaiza S P de Souza, Fernanda F G Dias, Joana Paula S Oliveira, Juliana M L N de Moura Bell, Maria Gabriela B Koblitz
Scientific Reports 2020 July 2, 10 (1): 10873
The almond cake is a protein-rich residue generated by the mechanical expression of the almond oil. The effects of the aqueous (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processes (EAEP) on the biological properties of the almond cake protein were evaluated. Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, inhibitory effects against crucial enzymes related to metabolic syndrome, antimicrobial potential, and in vitro protein digestibility profile were assessed. EAEP provided the best results for antioxidant capacity by both ORAC (397.2 µmol TE per g) and ABTS (650.5 µmol TE per g) methods and also showed a high (~ 98%) potential for α-glucosidase inhibition. The AEP resulted in protein extracts with the highest lipase inhibition (~ 70%) in a dose-dependent way. Enzymatic kinetic analyses revealed that EAEP generated uncompetitive inhibitors against α-glucosidase, while EAEP, AEP, and HEX-AEP (used as control) generated the same kind of inhibitors against lipase. No protein extract was effective against any of the bacteria strains tested at antimicrobial assays. An in silico theoretical hydrolysis of amandin subunits corroborated with the results found for antioxidant capacity, enzyme inhibitory experiments, and antimicrobial activity. Digestibility results indicated that the digestive proteases used were efficient in hydrolyzing almond proteins, regardless of the extraction applied and that HEX-AEP presented the highest digestibility (85%). In summary, EAEP and AEP skim proteins have the potential to be used as a nutraceutical ingredient. The biological properties observed in these extracts could help mitigate the development of metabolic syndrome where EAEP and AEP skim proteins could be potentially used as a prophylactic therapy for diabetes and obesity, respectively.

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