JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Graves' disease

Terry F Davies, Stig Andersen, Rauf Latif, Yuji Nagayama, Giuseppe Barbesino, Maria Brito, Anja K Eckstein, Alex Stagnaro-Green, George J Kahaly
Nature Reviews. Disease Primers 2020 July 2, 6 (1): 52
32616746
Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and occurs at all ages but especially in women of reproductive age. Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) that act as agonists and induce excessive thyroid hormone secretion, releasing the thyroid gland from pituitary control. TSHR autoantibodies also underlie Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and pretibial myxoedema. Additionally, the pathophysiology of GO (and likely pretibial myxoedema) involves the synergism of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with TSHR autoantibodies, causing retro-orbital tissue expansion and inflammation. Although the aetiology of GD remains unknown, evidence indicates a strong genetic component combined with random potential environmental insults in an immunologically susceptible individual. The treatment of GD has not changed substantially for many years and remains a choice between antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or surgery. However, antithyroid drug use can cause drug-induced embryopathy in pregnancy, radioiodine therapy can exacerbate GO and surgery can result in hypoparathyroidism or laryngeal nerve damage. Therefore, future studies should focus on improved drug management, and a number of important advances are on the horizon.

Full Text Links

We have located links that may give you full text access.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
32616746
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"