JOURNAL ARTICLE

Characteristics of primary Sjögren's syndrome related lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

Xin Dong, Yan-Li Gao, Yong Lu, Yi Zheng
Clinical Rheumatology 2020 July 1
32613392

OBJECTIVE: This paper is aimed at investigating the clinical characteristics of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP).

METHODS: The demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment, and prognosis from 15 cases of pSS-LIP patients were retrospectively analyzed. The data were compared with t test, χ2 test, and Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis.

RESULTS: (1) Fifteen cases of patients with pSS-LIP are all females (100%). Compared with pSS with interstitial lung disease(pSS-ILD) patients, the incidence of dry cough, dental caries is higher in pSS-LIP patients. The incidence of shortness of breath, weight loss, and crackles is lower in pSS-LIP patients than that of pSS-ILD patients. (2) Compared with pSS-ILD patients, pSS-LIP patients had higher percentage of patients with ANA, anti-SSA52KD antibody, anti-SSA60KD antibody, and anti-SSB antibody, and the higher concentration of serum globulin. (3) Compared with pSS-ILD patients, the frequency of obstructive ventilation dysfunction is significantly higher and the frequency of diffusion dysfunction is significantly lower in pSS-LIP patients. (4) The most frequent HRCT findings in patients with pSS-LIP is cysts (100%), followed by ground-glass opacities (73.3%), nodular shadow (73.3%) among the pSS-LIP patients. Compared with PSS-ILD patients, the incidence of pulmonary nodule shadow is significantly higher in PSS-LIP patients, while that of grid shadow was significantly lower. (5) Compared with the baseline, the sum of the number, maximum diameter, and diameter of cysts in three levels of pSS-LIP patients showed an increasing trend after treatment. (6) Correlation analysis: The changes of ground-glass opacities were positively correlated with using GC or not, and those were negatively correlated with the dose of GC treatment. Besides, there is a positive correlation between the annual change rate of the maximum diameter of cysts (△Ømax1/t) and the use of CTX; there is a positive correlation between the annual change rate of the total diameter of cysts (△Øsum1/t) and the use of CTX.

CONCLUSION: To the patients of pSS-LIP, female were more common than male, and the onset of LIP was usually more insidious. Hyperglobulinemia and anti-SSA antibody were more prominent in patients with pSS-LIP. Pulmonary function showed the higher rate of obstructive ventilation dysfunction and the lower rate of diffusion dysfunction. The appearance of ground-glass opacities in pSS-LIP patients suggests that the infiltration of inflammatory cells increases, which may cause airway compression, the expansion of terminal bronchioles, and the formation of cysts. The more ground-glass opacities appear earlier, and the more appearance of new cysts later. Therapy with glucocorticoid may be effective on the ground-glass opacity during acute stage, and therapy with cyclophosphamide may be effective on the cysts during chronic stage. The heavier ground-glass opacity is at baseline, the more likely it will recur during maintenance treatment. So follow-up closely is needed. Key Points • It is the first clinical study with more cases of patients with pSS-LIP. • Female and hyperglobulinemia and anti-SSA antibody were more prominent in patients with pSS-LIP. • Pulmonary function showed the higher rate of obstructive ventilation dysfunction and the lower rate of diffusion dysfunction. • Therapy with glucocorticoid may be effective on the ground-glass opacity during acute stage, and therapy with cyclophosphamide may be effective on the cysts during chronic stage.

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