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European Association of Urology Guidelines on Primary Urethral Carcinoma-2020 Update.

CONTEXT: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare cancer accounting for <1% of all genitourinary malignancies.

OBJECTIVE: To provide updated practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of PUC.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search interrogating Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Urothelial carcinoma of the urethra is the predominant histological type of PUC (54-65%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (16-22%) and adenocarcinoma (10-16%). Diagnosis of PUC depends on urethrocystoscopy with biopsy and urinary cytology. Pathological staging and grading are based on the tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) classification and the 2016 World Health Organization grading systems. Local tumour extent and regional lymph nodes are assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, and the presence of distant metastases is assessed by computed tomography of the thorax/abdomen and pelvis. For all patients with localised distal tumours (≤T2N0M0), partial urethrectomy or urethra-sparing surgery is a valid treatment option, provided that negative intraoperative surgical margins can be achieved. Prostatic Ta-Tis-T1 PUC can be treated with repeat transurethral resection of the prostate and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. In prostatic or proximal ≥ T2N0 disease, neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy should be considered prior to radical surgery. All patients with locally advanced disease (≥T3N0-2M0) should be discussed within a multidisciplinary team. In men with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma, curative radiotherapy combined with radiosensitising chemotherapy can be offered for definitive treatment and genital preservation. In patients with local urethral recurrence, salvage surgery or radiotherapy can be offered. For patients with distant metastatic disease, systemic therapy based on tumour characteristics can be evaluated.

CONCLUSIONS: These updated European Association of Urology guidelines provide up-to-date guidance for the contemporary diagnosis and management of patients with suspected PUC.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a very rare, but aggressive disease. These updated European Association of Urology guidelines provide evidence-based guidance for clinicians treating patients with PUC.

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