Hip and Subtrochanteric or Femoral Shaft Fractures after Bisphosphonate Use in Korean Women, Using Korean National Sample Cohort

Seok Hyung Won, Soyeon Ahn, Eunjeong Ji, Jung Wee Park, Jin Kak Kim, Young Kyun Lee
Journal of Korean Medical Science 2020 June 29, 35 (25): e193

BACKGROUND: Concern about bisphosphonate-associated subtrochanteric and femoral shaft (ST/FS) fractures has been raised. However, its real risk is still debatable, because there is no study to estimate risk and benefit of bisphosphonate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of typical hip fractures and ST/FS fractures among bisphosphonate users using nationwide database.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. We evaluated occurrence of the ST/FS and femoral neck and intertrochanteric (FN/IT) fractures among female bisphosphonate new users. Incidence rate of ST/FS and FN/IT fractures were compared between long-term users (≥ 1 year) and short-term users (< 1 year). Number needed to harm (NNH) for ST/FS and number needed to treat (NNT) for typical hip fracture were analyzed.

RESULTS: Among 46,420 bisphosphonate users, we identified 14,689 long-term users and 21,840 short-term users. During the study period, 61 long-term users and 36 short-term users had ST/FS fractures, while 204 long-term users and 511 short-term users had FN/IT fractures. The long-term user showed higher incidence rate of ST/FS fractures (67.1/100,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.9) comparing with 31.2/100,000 person-years (95% CI, 21.0-41.4) in the short-term users. The incidence rate of FN/IT fractures was 225.5/100,000 person-years (95% CI, 194.6-256.5) in the long-term users and 448.6/100,000 person-years (95% CI, 409.7-487.5) in the short-term users. The NNH for ST/FS was 400, while the NNT for typical hip fracture was 105.

CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that physicians keep the significant benefit of bisphosphonate to prevent typical hip fracture in mind, even the concerns about bisphosphonate-associated ST/FS fractures.

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