4th A in a triple A syndrome - A rare case report

K MaheshKumar, Shriraam Mahadevan, Padmavathi Ramaswamy
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 2020 June 24
Objectives AAA (Allgrove) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cardinal features of adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrimia. Case presentation A 21 year girl of known case of Triple A syndrome was referred for the evaluation of autonomic function. She was born full term with developmental delay and abnormal gait. Esophageal manometry study by pneumatic balloon dilatation revealed the presence of achalasia cardia. She had signs of peripheral neuropathy and had episodes of fainting and suspected orthostatic hypotension. Cardiovascular autonomic function and heart rate variability tests were conducted as per Ewing protocol, revealed that the patient had sympathovagal imbalance and sympathetic dominance. Conclusions The presence of autonomic dysfunction adds the 4th A to the Triple A syndrome (Adrenal insufficiency, Achalasia, Alacrimia and Autonomic dysfunction). Noninvasive autonomic function tests are recommended for Triple A syndrome patients to reduce the morbidity associated with autonomic dysfunction.

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