Distal Pancreatectomy with Celiac Axis Resection (Modified Appleby Procedure) and Arterial Reconstruction for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma After FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy and Chemoradiation Therapy

Pierre-Emmanuel Colombo, François Quenet, Pierre Alric, Anne Mourregot, Mathias Neron, Fabienne Portales, Philippe Rouanet, Guillaume Carrier
Annals of Surgical Oncology 2020 June 25

BACKGROUND: Resectability of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is directly linked to vascular extension (Tempero MA et al. in J Natl Compr Canc Netw 15(8):1028-1061, 2017.; Isaji S et al. in Pancreatology 18(1):2-11, 2018. Involvement of the celiac axis (CA) is typically a contraindication to surgery. High postoperative morbidity and subsequent poor prognosis have been observed in this case, especially for contact > 180° requiring arterial resection (Tempero MA et al. 2017). Recent medical advances in PC treatment, such as FOLFIRINOX-based chemotherapy eventually followed by chemoradiation therapy, offer the potential to select tumour for surgery and to obtain a negative-margin resection even in case of unresectable PC at diagnosis (Suker M et al. in Lancet Oncol 17(6):801-10, 2016.; Pietrasz D et al. in Ann Surg Oncol 26(1):109-117, 2019. A major pathologic response has been observed in more than 20% of patients after this treatment and is associated with an improved survival (Suker M et al. 2016; Pietrasz D et al. 2019). This evolution allows aggressive surgical strategies with the possibility of long-term disease control for patients showing a good response to induction treatment.

PATIENT: This video presents the case of a 66-year-old man diagnosed with a locally advanced ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic body with a 360° involvement of the CA and the hepatic artery. After eight courses of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy and a capecitabin-based chemoradiation, a surgical exploration was planned for potential resection.

TECHNIQUE: The key steps of the procedure are presented, i.e. surgical exposition, assessment of resectability with frozen sections of peri-arterial tissues, en bloc resection (Strasberg SM et al. in Surgery 133(5):521-527, 2003., and primary end-to-end arterial reconstruction.

CONCLUSION: A modified Appleby operation for locally advanced PC is a technically challenging but feasible procedure in experienced teams. It offers the possibility of en bloc R0 resection of a locally advanced PC with the potential of long-term disease local control. This video may help surgeons to perform this complex intervention.

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