JOURNAL ARTICLE

Neuropathic pain: From mechanisms to treatment

Nanna Brix Finnerup, Rohini Kuner, Troels Staehelin Jensen
Physiological Reviews 2020 June 25
32584191
Neuropathic pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system is a common chronic pain condition with major impact on quality of life. Examples include trigeminal neuralgia, painful polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia and central poststroke pain. Most patients complain of an ongoing or intermittent spontaneous pain of e.g. burning, pricking, squeezing quality, which may be accompanied by evoked pain, particular to light touch and cold. Ectopic activity in e.g. nerve-end neuroma, compressed nerves or nerve roots, dorsal root ganglia, and the thalamus may in different conditions underlie the spontaneous pain. Evoked pain may spread to neighboring areas and the underlying pathophysiology involves peripheral and central sensitization. Maladaptive structural changes and a number of cell-cell interactions and molecular signaling underlies the sensitization of nociceptive pathways. These include alteration in ion channels, activation of immune cells, glial-derived mediators, and epigenetic regulation. The major classes of therapeutics include drugs acting on α2 δsubunits of calcium channels, sodium channels, and descending modulatory inhibitory pathways.

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