Endocardial electro-anatomic mapping in healthy horses: Normal sinus impulse propagation in the left and right atrium and the ventricles

G Van Steenkiste, Vera L, A Decloedt, S Schauvliege, T Boussy, G van Loon
Veterinary Journal 2020, 258: 105452
Understanding the depolarisation pattern of the equine heart under normal physiologic conditions, and its relationship to the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), is of uppermost importance before any further research can be done about the pathophysiology of complex arrhythmias. In the present study, a 3D electro-anatomical mapping system was used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative depolarisation patterns and correlation to the surface ECG of both the atrial and ventricular endocardium in seven healthy horses in sinus rhythm under general anaesthesia. Bipolar activation maps of the endocardium were analysed. The first atrial activation was located at the height of the terminal crest. Only one interatrial conduction pathway was recognised. The first and second P wave deflections represent the right and left atrial depolarisation, respectively. Bundle of His electrograms could be recorded in 5/7 horses. Left ventricular activation started at the mid septum and right ventricular activation started apically from the supraventricular crest. This was followed by separate depolarisations at the height of the mid free wall. Further ventricular depolarisation occurred in an explosive pattern. Electrically active tissue could be found in all pulmonary veins. In contrast to findings of previous studies, all parts of the ventricular depolarisation contributed to the surface ECG QRS complex. This study provides a reference for the normal sinus impulse endocardial propagation pattern and for conduction velocities in equine atria and ventricles.

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