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Haemophilus urethritis in males: A series of 30 cases.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogens such as Haemophilus spp. have been associated with non-gonococcal urethritis, but their role is unproven. To describe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes in male patients diagnosed with Haemophilus spp. urethritis.

METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of all patients who presented to our hospital (in either the emergency department or the outpatient clinic) between July 2016 and April 2018 in whom Haemophilus spp. was isolated in the urethral samples. We enrolled 30 men with Haemophilus spp.-positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Clinical, laboratory, demographic, and behavioral data were obtained by reviewing medical histories.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 36.6 years (range 21-87). Seventeen patients (63%) reported being exclusively heterosexual. Three patients (10%) were HIV infected, all of them with an undetectable viral load. The most common clinical presentation was mucopurulent urethral discharge, in 13 patients (43%). The antibiotic treatment achieved a complete clinical resolution in 73%.

CONCLUSIONS: Haemophilus urethritis affected men regardless of their sexual orientation or HIV status. Unprotected oral sex may play a role in its transmission. The limitations of the study preclude verification of the pathogenic role of Haemophilus spp. in acute urethritis, but clinical response after antibiotic treatment suggests that Haemophilus spp. can play such a role.

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