Gadofullerene nanoparticles for robust treatment of aplastic anemia induced by chemotherapy drugs

Wang Jia, Mingming Zhen, Lei Li, Chen Zhou, Zihao Sun, Shuai Liu, Zhongpu Zhao, Jie Li, Chunru Wang, Chunli Bai
Theranostics 2020, 10 (15): 6886-6897
Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized as hypoplasia of bone marrow hematopoietic cells and hematopenia of peripheral blood cells. Though the supplement of exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) has been clinically approved for AA treatment, the side-effects hinder its further application. Here a robust treatment for AA induced by chemotherapy drugs is explored using gadofullerene nanoparticles (GFNPs). Methods : The gadofullerene were modified with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions to become the water-soluble nanoparticles (GFNPs). The physicochemical properties, in vitro chemical construction, stability, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, in vivo treatment efficacy, therapeutic mechanism and biological distribution, metabolism, toxicity of GFNPs were examined. Results : GFNPs with great stability and high-efficiency antioxidant activity could observably increase the number of red blood cells (RBC) in the peripheral blood of AA mice and relieve the abnormal pathological state of bone marrow. The erythropoiesis mainly includes hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiation, erythrocyte development in bone marrow and erythrocyte maturation in peripheral blood. The positive control-EPO promotes erythropoiesis by regulating HSCs differentiation and erythrocyte development in bone marrow. Different from the anti-AA mechanism of EPO, GFNPs have little impact on both the differentiation of HSCs and the myeloid erythrocyte development, but notably improve the erythrocyte maturation. Besides, GFNPs can notably decrease the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit apoptosis of hemocytes in blood. In addition, GFNPs are mostly excreted from the living body and cause no serious toxicity. Conclusion : Our work provides an insight into the advanced nanoparticles to powerfully treat AA through ameliorating the erythrocyte maturation during erythropoiesis.

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