Risk factors of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after acute ischemic stroke treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator. The effectiveness of activated recombinant factor VII treatment

Yu Shimizu, Katsuhiro Tsuchiya, Norihiro Fujisawa
Surgical Neurology International 2020, 11: 129

Background: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare and frequently life-threatening complication of a variety of conditions. DAH may result from coagulation disorders, inhaled toxins, or infections. We report a series of patients who developed DAH after receiving a tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute cerebral infarction. We aimed to find risk factors of DAH in patients receiving tPA and the effectiveness of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) treatment for the same.

Case Description: A total of 1023 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who received tPA in our department from January 2006 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Four of the 1023 patients (0.39%) developed DAH. The modified Rankin scale was used to assess clinical severity. Infarction volume was assessed upon follow-up using DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging). Atherothrombotic brain infarction cases were excluded from the study. The age, sex, occlusion site, area of infarction, emphysema, intracranial hemorrhage, and neurological outcomes were analyzed. Patients who developed DAH were more likely to have a history of emphysema. We administered rFVIIa to three DAH patients with good prognosis.

Conclusion: The inclusion/exclusion criteria of tPA were based on the AHA/ASA Guidelines for the early management of patients with AIS.These patients had no evidence of infections, bronchoscopy, autoimmune diseases, HIV, and transplantations. Our study suggests that systemic administration of rFVIIa for DAH is effective. Emphysema may be a risk factor for the development of DAH following tPA. When we use tPA for emphysema patients, we must be careful about DAH enough.

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