Tumour-to-liver ratio determined by [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT as a prognostic factor of lanreotide efficacy for patients with well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumours

Yong-Il Kim, Changhoon Yoo, Seung Jun Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Junho Kang, Hee-Sang Hwang, Seung-Mo Hong, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, Jin-Sook Ryu
EJNMMI Research 2020 June 15, 10 (1): 63

BACKGROUND: Lanreotide is a long-acting somatostatin analogue with proven antitumour effects against well-differentiated (WD) gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs). However, there are no globally established prognostic factors associated with the efficacy of lanreotide as a treatment for GEP-NETs. We investigated the prognostic value of [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) somatostatin receptor imaging for patients with WD GEP-NETs treated with lanreotide.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 31 patients with unresectable or metastatic WD GEP-NETs who received lanreotide and underwent [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT before receiving lanreotide. We captured the following clinicopathological variables: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, primary tumour site, NET World Health Organization grade, existence of carcinoid symptoms, previous surgery, previous chemotherapy, and hepatic tumour volume assessed by CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also assessed the following [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT variables: Krenning score, tumour-to-liver ratio (TLR), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), whole tumour volume (WTV), and total receptor expression (TRE, WTV multiplied by SUVmean). The associations between these markers and progression-free survival (PFS) with lanreotide were analysed.

RESULTS: The mean age was 55.1 ± 15.5 years (range 16.0-81.0). The most common primary tumour site was the pancreas, followed by the stomach, and rectum. The median PFS interval with lanreotide was 14.4 months (range 1.3-34.9), with identified disease progression in 20 patients (64.5%). Among the [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT variables, TLR (< 8.1 vs. ≥ 8.1; p = 0.013), SUVmax (< 42.9 vs. ≥ 42.9; p = 0.037), and WTV (≥ 58.9 cm3 vs. < 58.9 cm3 ; p = 0.030) were significantly associated with PFS in the univariate analyses, but only TLR (hazard ratio 3.182 [95% CI 1.189-8.514], p = 0.021) remained an independent factor for PFS in the multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Low TLR, determined via [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT, can be a factor of worse prognosis in patients with advanced WD GEP-NETs treated with lanreotide.

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