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The pharmacological management of vertigo in Meniere disease.

INTRODUCTION: The term Meniere disease (MD) gathers a set of rare diseases involving the inner ear characterized by episodic vertigo associated with fluctuating auditory symptoms. Five clinical subgroups of patients have been defined, including familial MD, autoimmune MD, and MD with migraine. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria as no biomarker is available, but genetic factors have a significant contribution in familial and non-familial MD.

AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors summarize the pharmacological treatment for vertigo in MD, providing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. However, evidence supporting the efficacy for betahistine, diuretics, and intratympanic administration of corticosteroids or gentamicin is limited.

EXPERT OPINION: Randomized clinical trials should consider stratification by MD clinical subgroups. The treatment plan should be personalized according to the clinical subgroup, hearing stage, duration of the disease, vertigo attack profile, and comorbidities. The treatment should include therapeutic counseling, sodium-free diet, high-water intake, and a diary of vertigo attacks with symptoms during the episodes to improve phenotyping. Migraine or autoimmune comorbidities will also require pharmacotherapy. Genetic testing by exome/genome sequencing should be discussed with the patient for familial MD and individuals with an early onset for genetic counseling and future gene therapies.

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