JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clinical IRAK4 deficiency caused by homozygosity for the novel IRAK4 (c.1049delG, p.Gly350Glufs*15) variant

Alicia Jia, Elliot James, Henry Y Lu, Mehul Sharma, Bhavi P Modi, Catherine M Biggs, Kyla J Hildebrand, Alanna Chomyn, Stephanie Erdle, Hasandeep Kular, Stuart E Turvey
Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies 2020, 6 (3)
32532880
The innate immune system allows for rapid recognition of pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is a key aspect of the innate immune response, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) plays a vital role in the TLR signaling cascade. Each TLR recognizes a distinct set of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that encompass conserved microbial components such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin. Upon binding of PAMPs and TLR activation, TLR intracellular domains initiate the oligomerization of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), IRAK1, IRAK2, and IRAK4 signaling platform known as the Myddosome complex while also triggering the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent pathway. The Myddosome complex initiates signal transduction pathways enabling the activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcription factors and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines. Human IRAK4 deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of immunity that classically presents with blunted or delayed inflammatory response to infection and susceptibility to a narrow spectrum of pyogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe a case of IRAK4 deficiency in an 11-mo-old boy with concurrent S. pneumoniae bacteremia and S. aureus cervical lymphadenitis with a blunted inflammatory response to invasive infection. Although initial clinical immune profiling was unremarkable, a high degree of suspicion for an innate immune defect prompted genetic sequencing. Genetic testing revealed a novel variant in the IRAK4 gene (c.1049delG, p.(Gly350Glufs*15)) predicted to be likely pathogenic. Functional testing showed a loss of IRAK4 protein expression and abolished TLR signaling, confirming the pathogenicity of this novel IRAK4 variant.

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