Influence of bariatric surgery induced weight loss on oxidative DNA damage

Ezgi Eyluel Bankoglu, Johanna Gerber, Geema Kodandaraman, Florian Seyfried, Helga Stopper
Mutation Research 2020, 853: 503194
Obesity is associated with elevated cancer risk, which may be represented by elevated genomic damage. Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity related detrimental health consequences including DNA oxidation damage. The elevated cancer risk in obesity may be a consequence. Weight loss has been shown to reduce genomic damage, but the role of oxidative stress in that has not been clarified. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the influence of bariatric surgery induced weight loss on DNA oxidation damage in morbidly obese subjects. For this aim, we used cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the FPG comet assay. Advanced protein oxidation products and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured as oxidative and nitrative protein stress markers. Furthermore, expression of oxidative stress related proteins HSP70 and Nrf2 as well as mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase and NADPH oxidase subunit p22 phox were analysed. Our findings revealed significantly reduced DNA strand breaks, but DNA base oxidation was not reduced. We observed significant reduction in plasma AOPPs and 3-nitrotyrosine, which indicated an improvement in oxidative/nitrative stress. However, expression of HSP70 and Nrf2 were not altered after weight loss. In addition, expression of citrate synthase and p22 phox were also unaltered. Overall, bariatric surgery induced significant reduction in excess body weight and improved the patients' health status, including reduced DNA strand breaks and slightly improved antioxidant status in some of the investigated endpoints, while cellular ROS formation and DNA oxidation damage stayed unaltered. This complex situation may be due to combined beneficial effects of weight loss and burdening of the body with fat breakdown products. In the future, collecting samples two years after surgery, when patients have been in a weight plateau for some time, might be a promising approach.

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