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Cost-Utility Analysis of Ravulizumab Compared with Eculizumab in Adult Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

PharmacoEconomics 2020 September
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, characterized by intravascular hemolysis and venous thrombosis, can be managed with eculizumab, an inhibitor of the complement system; however, patients may periodically experience breakthrough hemolysis. Ravulizumab is a newly approved treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria that may reduce breakthrough hemolysis risk, thus improving health-related quality of life and reducing treatment costs.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the costs and benefit of treatment with ravulizumab vs eculizumab in adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, from a US payer perspective.

METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a semi-Markov model, informed by clinical experts. Lifetime costs and benefit (quality-adjusted life-years) (both discounted at 3% per annum) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated, over a lifetime horizon. Results are reported for an entire treated population and subgroups of eculizumab treatment history. Scenario analyses were characterized by assumptions of non-inferiority between treatments, in terms of breakthrough hemolysis incidence and blood transfusion requirements, and of variations in eculizumab dosing adjustments used in response to breakthrough hemolysis.

RESULTS: In the base-case analysis for the overall population, there was a positive impact on health-related quality of life (quality-adjusted life-year gain of 1.67) and costs were lower (- $1,673,465), for ravulizumab vs eculizumab. This led to a negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (- $1,000,818, indicating cost savings per quality-adjusted life-year gained). Health-related quality-of-life improvement and cost savings were also observed in all cohorts and scenario analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: In adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, ravulizumab is associated with improved health-related quality of life and provides a large cost saving from the perspective of a US payer, when compared with eculizumab.

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