Surgical management of isolated orbital floor and zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures with focus on surgical approaches and complications

Martina Schneider, Inga S Besmens, Yeda Luo, Pietro Giovanoli, Nicole Lindenblatt
Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery 2020, 54 (4): 200-206
Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) and orbital blow out fractures are commonly encountered midfacial fractures that may result in aesthetic and functional impairment. This retrospective study reports on the surgical treatment and associated postoperative complications in our patient collective. We evaluated 100 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of midfacial fractures between 2010 and 2015. Preoperative clinical features, surgical technique and postoperative complications were analyzed. Surgery was performed with a mean latency of 7 days after trauma. We used titanium mesh and polydioxanone sheets to reconstruct the orbital floor. Most ZMC fractures were stabilized with two point fixation with titanium plates. Preoperative symptoms were present in 70 patients (70%). Infraorbital hypesthesia occurred in 49 patients, diplopia in 41 patients and ocular motility impairment in 24 patients. Postoperative symptoms persisted during a mean follow-up time of 4.5 months in 47 patients (47%) showing infraorbital hypesthesia in 24%, diplopia in 17%, ectropion in 7% and ocular motility impairment in 4%. Complications requiring revision were retrobulbar hematoma 3% ( n  = 3), ectropion 3% ( n  = 3), diplopia 1% ( n  = 1), exophthalmos 1% ( n  = 1), implant dislocation 1% ( n  = 1), implant discomfort 2% ( n  = 2), persisting fracture dislocation 1% ( n  = 1). All patients recovered without significant impairment. Surgery is required in the majority of the patients with midfacial fractures. Among others ectropion is challenging due to its aesthetic and functional impact on patients. To prevent ectropion, additional canthopexy or the transconjunctival surgical approach are reasonable options in selected cases. Level of Evidence: Level V, descriptive study. AbbreviationsCTcomputed tomographyOForbital floorPDSpolydioxanoneORIFopen reduction and internal fixationZMCzygomaticomaxillary complex.

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