Will urinary biomarkers provide a breakthrough in diagnosing cardiac surgery-associated AKI? - A systematic review

Mohmmed Laique Hussain, Pousette Farouk Hamid, Ntema Chakane
Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals 2020, 25 (5): 375-383
Introduction: Acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery is a dreaded complication contributing to early mortality. Diagnosing AKI using serum creatinine usually results in a delay. To combat this, certain kidney damage specific biomarkers were investigated to identify if they can serve as early predictors of cardiac surgery-associated AKI (CSA-AKI). This study systematically reviews three such biomarkers; NGAL, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) to identify if they can serve as early predictors of CSA-AKI. Methods: Systematic search was carried out on literature reporting the diagnostic ability of the three biomarkers from databases in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Results: We found 43 articles reporting urinary-NGAL levels ( n   =   34 in adults, n   =   9 in children) and 10 studies reporting TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 levels among adults. Interestingly, NGAL showed high diagnostic value in predicting AKI in children (seven among nine studies with AUROC   >   0.8). The cell cycle arrest biomarkers, namely TIMP-2 and IGFBP7, showed high diagnostic value in predicting AKI in adults (five among ten studies with AUROC   >   0.8). Conclusion: In predicting CSA-AKI; the diagnostic value of NGAL is high in the paediatric population while the diagnostic value of TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 is high in adults.

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