Essential thrombocythemia: a hemostatic view of thrombogenic risk factors and prognosis

Mohsen Maleknia, Saeid Shahrabi, Majid Ghanavat, Tina Vosoughi, Najmaldin Saki
Molecular Biology Reports 2020 May 30
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a classical myeloproliferative neoplasm that is susceptible to hypercoagulable state due to impaired hemostatic system, so that thrombotic complications are the leading cause of mortality in ET patients. The content used in this article has been obtained by the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine from English-language articles (2000-2019) using the following keywords: "Essential thrombocythemia," "Thrombosis," "Risk factors" and "Hemostasis. In this neoplasm, the count and activity of cells such as platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, as well as erythrocytes are increased, which can increase the risk of thrombosis through rising intercellular interactions, expression of surface markers, and stimulation of platelet aggregation. In addition to these factors, genetic polymorphisms in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including mutations in JAK2, CALR, MPL, or genetic abnormalities in other genes associated with the hemostatic system may be associated with increased risk of thrombotic events. Moreover, disruption of coagulant factors can pave the way for thrombogeneration. Therefore, the identification of markers related to cell activation, genetic abnormalities, or alternation in the coagulant system can be used together as diagnostic and prognostic markers for the occurrence of thrombosis among ET patients. Thus, because thrombotic complications are the main factors of mortality in ET patients, a hemostatic viewpoint and risk assessment of cellular, genetic, and coagulation factors can have prognostic value and contribute to the choice of effective treatment and prevention of thrombosis.

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