Primary laparoscopic approach to repair perforated peptic ulcer. A retrospective cohort study

Gianrocco Manco, Stefania Caramaschi, Giovanni Rolando, Marzio Malagoli, Giuliana Zanelli, Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Aldo Rossi
Minerva Chirurgica 2020, 75 (6): 436-441

BACKGROUND: Perforated peptic ulcer is a serious complication of peptic ulcer disease and carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in recent decades, the percentage of patients with perforated peptic ulcer requiring emergency surgery remains constant. The use of laparoscopic management as a first choice for the treatment of the perforation is growing but is not routine in many centers.

METHODS: Clinical and surgical data on 42 patients underwent surgical treatment for perforated peptic ulcer from January 2012 to December 2016 were collected. Laparoscopic repair of the perforation with a three-port technique was made in all cases. The Boey scoring system was used to predict the prognosis.

RESULTS: All patients underwent suture-closure of the ulcer, and omental patch through laparoscopy without conversion to open surgery. Duodenal leakages occurred in 3 patients (7.1%), then treated with a conservative approach and resolved on the 10th postoperative day. Two patients (4.7%) had deep space infections in the first week after surgery, therefore subdiaphragmatic and pelvic abscess were drained by ultrasound guidance. Four patients (9.5%) died up to 30-day post-surgery due to progression of multisystem organ failure in absence of leakages or infections. All these patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification >III and Boey Score 3.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that a primary laparoscopic approach in patients with peptic ulcer perforation is associated with postoperative advantages and acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality, essentially related to high Boey Score. Therefore, we suggest that the surgical repair of PPU could be always started laparoscopically.

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