JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Teaching Clinical Reasoning and Critical Thinking: From Cognitive Theory to Practical Application

Jeremy B Richards, Margaret M Hayes, Richard M Schwartzstein
Chest 2020, 158 (4): 1617-1628
32450242
Teaching clinical reasoning is challenging, particularly in the time-pressured and complicated environment of the ICU. Clinical reasoning is a complex process in which one identifies and prioritizes pertinent clinical data to develop a hypothesis and a plan to confirm or refute that hypothesis. Clinical reasoning is related to and dependent on critical thinking skills, which are defined as one's capacity to engage in higher cognitive skills such as analysis, synthesis, and self-reflection. This article reviews how an understanding of the cognitive psychological principles that contribute to effective clinical reasoning has led to strategies for teaching clinical reasoning in the ICU. With familiarity with System 1 and System 2 thinking, which represent intuitive vs analytical cognitive processing pathways, respectively, the clinical teacher can use this framework to identify cognitive patterns in clinical reasoning. In addition, the article describes how internal and external factors in the clinical environment can affect students' and trainees' clinical reasoning abilities, as well as their capacity to understand and incorporate strategies for effective critical thinking into their practice. Utilizing applicable cognitive psychological theory, the relevant literature on teaching clinical reasoning is reviewed, and specific strategies to effectively teach clinical reasoning and critical thinking in the ICU and other clinical settings are provided. Definitions, operational descriptions, and justifications for a variety of teaching interventions are discussed, including the "one-minute preceptor" model, the use of concept or mechanism maps, and cognitive de-biasing strategies.

Full Text Links

We have located links that may give you full text access.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
32450242
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"