Anatomical distribution of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute stroke

Xun-Can Liu, Xiao-Wei Chen, Zhen-Lan Li, Shou-Chun Wang, Chen Chen
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association 2020 May 10, : 104866

OBJECTIVE: Post-stroke paralysis is a common contributor to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities, but little is known about its epidemiology and anatomy. This prospective study aimed to investigate the clinical incidence and anatomical distribution of lower-extremity DVT in acute stroke.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 679 patients diagnosed with acute stroke (ischemic stroke, n = 507; hemorrhagic stroke, n = 172) were enrolled. Lower-extremity DVT was evaluated using vascular ultrasonography, and classified into three subtypes: central type, peripheral type and mixed type. Then, the incidence and anatomical distribution of DVT were analyzed.

RESULTS: For patients with ischemic stroke, a total of 107 patients (21.1%) were affected by DVT, and 119 extremities were found with DVT, which included 114 extremities with peripheral-type DVT and five extremities with mixed-type DVT. For patients with hemorrhagic stroke, a total of 49 patients (28.5%) were affected by DVT, and 55 extremities were found with DVT, which included 51 extremities with peripheral-type DVT and four extremities with mixed-type DVT. The incidence of DVT was significantly higher in patients with hemorrhagic stroke than in patients with ischemic stroke (P < 0.05). Intermuscular veins were the most commonly affected (96.6%), followed by peroneal veins (15.5%), posterior tibial veins (9.2%), popliteal veins (4.0%), and femoral veins (4.0%). There was no significant difference in the anatomical distribution of DVT between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: DVT is a common complication of acute stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke is associated with a higher incidence of DVT. The anatomical distribution of DVT revealed no heterogeneity between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and isolated DVT in intermuscular veins were the most common.

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