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Atrial Flutter-Unique Arrhythmia in Neonatal Population, Presentation of 3 Cases.

BACKGROUND: Atrial flutter (AFL) is an uncommon arrhythmia in the pediatric population. It is defined as fast ordered atrial depolarization (about 250-500 beats/min). It occurs mainly in children with congenital heart defects; however, it may also manifest in fetuses and infants with an anatomically healthy heart. In neonates, AFL is most often revealed within the first 2 days after birth.

CLINICAL FINDINGS: In this case report, we present 3 neonates without complex congenital heart defects with AFL, along with the description of the course, diagnostic and therapeutic processes depending on the clinical condition of a child, and response to treatment.

PRIMARY DIAGNOSIS: Symptoms in this group of patients are nonspecific, that is, tachypnea, unwillingness to eat, and fatigue while feeding. The diagnostic process included thorough electro- and echocardiographic assessments. Each child was treated individually due to a different cause of arrhythmia and comorbidities.

INTERVENTIONS: Invasive (electrical cardioversion) and pharmacological methods were used in treatment to achieve conversion to sinus rhythm.

OUTCOMES: One patient required electrical cardioversion, one was treated with amiodarone and digoxin, and one infant received amiodarone. All children achieved conversion to sinus rhythm.

PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS: During the follow-up, each child maintained sinus rhythm, which shows that in the neonatal group, it is a unique, but well-controlled, arrhythmia once conversion to sinus rhythm is achieved.

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